The Multiracial Movement and Anti-Black Racism

biracial-black-motherThe American multiracial movement is a social and political campaign to encourage recognition of the multi-ethnic background of racially mixed people. A primary focus of the movement is the large-scale acceptance of the mixed heritage of individuals of black and white parentage, or African and European parentage, who have been historically classified simply as “black” due to the legal and later social One Drop Rule.

The multiracial movement claims to be a crusade for racial progress in the United States by promoting the acceptance of and creating communities for mixed race individuals. But is the movement, in its focus on ending the One Drop Rule, encouraging anti-black prejudice? Informal aspects of the movement suggest that it is not as tolerant and beneficial as it claims.

Minimizing black/African heritage

Mixed race advocates and their supporters attempt to reduce the black or African ancestry of people of black and white parentage. Comparisons are made between mixed race individuals and those of “pure” African descent to show the “striking” difference in phenotype. Within the informal movement, a social hierarchy is created amongst mixed people — those with the least African ancestry (as judged by appearance) on top and those with the most on the bottom.

Reverse one drop rule

Some advocates of the multi-racial movement categorize not only those of directly mixed parentage as multiracial, but anyone who share outward traits with mixed individuals. This results in a reverse One Drop Rule — anyone who is suspected of being mixed due to appearance is labeled as such, whether they are or not. This is done to separate mixed individuals from “true” blacks; mixed race people can not be recognized as mixed if there are blacks with a similar appearance.

“White is right” and blame blacks

Supporters of the movement claim that mixed people have been marginalized and denied their true identities. However, these same people view white-identified mixed individuals as inspiration. If the multiracial movement’s goal is to encourage a mixed identity, it should be opposed to mixed people identifying and being seen as white. Since the most vocal supporters are not opposed to this, it suggests that the movement is not so much about supporting mixed heritage, but lessening black heritage.

Multi-racial advocates blame black Americans for past and current lack of mixed race identity in the United States. But these supporters rarely mention the role that white Americans had to play in this; whites historically proposed and upheld the One Drop Rule and continue to view most individuals of black and white ancestry as simply black. Mixed race advocates failure to acknowledge this fact again suggests that the minimization of black identity is a most important goal.

The multiracial movement is a campaign that began with positive intentions, but with methods that hinder its goals. Acknowledgment of the multi-racial parentage of mixed individuals should be just that, and not the disregard and resentment of one part of their heritage.

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33 thoughts on “The Multiracial Movement and Anti-Black Racism

  1. I only been to the states once and that was for a weekend trip to NY with my hubby so I can’t really speak for this, but this is how I feel about it.

    I think that the one drop blood rule is pretty racist like being part black “taints” your other parts, but I understand what put it in place. Mixed individuals stand out where I’m from and are called coloured and they are coloured in SA no question about that. It’s the same in Zimbabwe and some other countries with mixed populations. If you coloured in SA you are proud of it and no one “forces” you to label yourself Black, White or Indian.

    Well all I can say is that my kids will not be denying any part of themselves. I don’t think they will be learn so much South African black culture in school more than that apartheid is bad, but they will from me and from their relatives whenever we visit Durban. The kids will learn about Mandela, Biko, shaka zulu and the rest from me. I might even throw in some Coloured culture as well to make them understand that the world is not black and white and they are not alone in being mixed at all, heck 10 million people in their other home country is proof of that. We could even visit whole townships with people that looks like them.

    A pretty interesting news clip from the UK on the subject

    Oh and an extra clip for giggles on the subject.

  2. Nkosazana,

    Right, the situation for mixed people is quite different in countries outside of the U.S. At the same time, I wonder how different other countries are in terms of the social hierarchy. Many countries I’ve seen that recognize mixed identity for black/white people also grant a special status to this group, one above those with a greater amount of black ancestry.

    As for the first clip, see that’s when things get sticky. The girl in the video to me looks just black. She doesn’t look different from many black Americans or even many African immigrants I know in the U.S. So it’s hard to tell who is who which is part of why it’s so difficult for a true mixed race designation to take place in a place like the U.S. where people are so diverse in background.

    Lol at the second clip. Yes, the word “colored” has a bit of a different meaning outside of South Africa.

  3. Well coloured South Africans did have it better than black South Africans during apartheid there’s no denying that. But I think the whole world is changing and that enforced social hierarchy is gone in SA between black and coloured after aparthied was removed. Now its just how people of mix ancestry identifies themselves and they are in the same pickle as the black people are.

    I can’t think of any modern country on the top of my head really except for the US that would put mixed kids ahead of people with more “black” in them with that “redbone” crap that i have read about.

    I think for the first clip is where personal recognizing comes in, I think that she would say that she was simply black 20-30 years ago and UK seems to be a lot more integrated as the host said than the US with everyone being friend with each other and race not being such a big issue, so why not call yourself mixed if you love your mom and dad equally and there’s no pressure to force you to pick from both whites and blacks as it should be :)

    But I can’t really speak how this would work in the US since I don’t know that much really about the US except for what I read on these kinds of blogs.

  4. Nkosazana,

    “I can’t think of any modern country on the top of my head really except for the US that would put mixed kids ahead of people with more “black” in them with that “redbone” crap that i have read about.

    I guess it depends on what you mean by modern… I’ve heard most of the Caribbean (Jamaica, Trinidad, Dominican Republic, etc) and the South American countries with a sizable amount of black people are like this. I also have personal experiences with people from the Caribbean and their racial social hierarchy. Some of them take it even further than people in the U.S.

    Lol at “redbone”. I didn’t know what that meant until a few years ago because I’m originally from the Northeast part of the United States where we don’t use terms like that too much. But a few people called me that in the South and I was so confused when I looked it up. I think I have more yellow undertones than anything, but I guess it’s now just a term for lighter people in general.

    I’m a bit skeptical on the UK being a racial utopia. Too many I know describe it as having a similar (albeit a little better) environment to the U.S. in terms of interracial relationships. I suppose it could be better for mixed race individuals since there are so many of them.

  5. Acknowledgment of the multi-racial parentage of mixed individuals should be just that, and not the disregard and resentment of one part of their heritage.

    Let the church say amen.

    I think the “resentment” that’s present in the multiracial movement is two-fold. Some multiracial people resent Blacks for their social position, since the vast majority of them get lumped into the same category. Most light-skinned people aren’t “mixed” as they would define it, and most mixed people don’t look “not-Black”, and that fuels the phenotypic resentment. Their Blackness is a taint, which is why mixed-race people who look “regular Black” are ignored for the racially ambiguous.

    (I have more to say but I have to catch the rail–I’ll be back!)

  6. Jasmin,

    “Some multiracial people resent Blacks for their social position, since the vast majority of them get lumped into the same category.”

    And this is problematic because it suggests that they have an issue with being seen as simply “black” where not many have an issue with being seen as simply “white”.

  7. You sure about UK?

    I have been in London once with hubby and no one gave us a second look. From what i have heard IR couples was so common that you see more of them than a BW/BM couples. At least with the black people who has been there for a while.

    Lol utopia, find me a place thats perfect and I’ll move there.

  8. Nkosazana,

    “You sure about UK?”

    I just know what I’ve been hearing from family and online and offline friends. I’ve never been there but I hope to visit London.

    “I have been in London once with hubby and no one gave us a second look.”

    I can see that since IR dating is much more common. But I hear they have similar issues involving racial aspects — loyalty/rejection/beauty standards, etc.

  9. Ah you are probably right about loyalty rejection, beauty standards etc.

    I just don’t know enough about that and I did not stay long enough to notice anything like that to comment on it. Oh and you should go to London it’s a very fun city, expensive to live in though.

    And I heard about how messed up South American and Carribian countries are, that’s why I said; “modern” I guess. I think I should have said countries that takes cares of its citizens basic needs and with a population that is fairly educated, I think you understand what I’m trying to say.

    Hmm feels like I’m spaming your blog now :(

  10. OK, I’m back. :-P

    I would like to say that I’ve never heard of this multiracial movement outside of online. Not that I’m trying to diminish it’s “legitimacy”, but I’ve never met a mixed person who felt all of the oppression you hear about online. So I don’t let the online presence feed any biases toward mixed people, since all of the ones I know in real life are perfectly nice people.

    I also think the multiracial movement (ironically) makes things more black and white while accusing Black and White people of doing so. IME, “blackness” is defined by Whites (and Blacks, but I’ll stick to talking about Whites since they have the privileged opinion in the US) by more than just phenotype. That’s why accusations of “acting White”, “not being like other Black people” and the like aren’t just aimed at mixed people. However, the most vocal members of the multiracial movement seem to think that a) no “regular Black” people ever interact with/love/befriend White people and b) they have the best chances of being accepted into the “White club” because of their appearance (now if only those pesky Blacks would stop trying to hold them down). In reality, to be a Black person loved by racist Whites you only need to toe the party line and not bring up racism. Some people I’ve know to do that have been the darkest Black people I know. It’s not that phenotype isn’t important, it’s just that mannerisms, attitudes, and behaviors seem to be more important to Whites (IME).

  11. I think the main problem here is the fact they don’t seem to fight for the acceptance of mixed individuals, but for the “you’re not really black” acceptance.

    I am mixed. I am not mixed in racial way (I’m mixed in ethnic way), but still, I do understand it’s important for mixed people to have their own identity. They are neither A or B, and they are both A and B at the same time. That makes them a different group altogether. And I understand if they want to fight for that acceptance, and I understand they don’t want to be considered something they don’t think they are.

    However, from what I can tell (both from this article and certain… posters on the Internet), these people do want to minimize their blackness. No other way to put it. They all love their black family members, sure they do, but they do seem to have a huge problem of being considered black, but don’t seem to have a problem with being considered white. Now, because of various reasons, it’s difficult for them to be seen as white, but still, some of them did express the belief they are white, but with some African ancestry.

    Now, people can do whatever they want, but if you want to play reverse ODR, just say so. But don’t pretend you’re doing something else, if all you want is not a mixed people unity, but to make difference between yourself and black people.

    On the other hand, I must admit I did notice that mixed American people who identify as mixed (and not black) are sometimes criticized and accused of denying their black ancestry. Or that some blacks go as far as “claiming” mixed people who are phenotypically white (for example, Wentworth Miller).

    But the thing is, if there is going to be “mixed” as a real group, there should be at least some sense of a collective identity and shared culture. Do mixed individuals in the US have it? Not sure. Furthermore, the group itself should be very diverse when it comes to phenotype: it doesn’t matter how you look like, if you’re mixed, you’re one of our own. But I am not sure if this kind of unity is possible today.

  12. Mira,

    But the thing is, if there is going to be “mixed” as a real group, there should be at least some sense of a collective identity and shared culture. Do mixed individuals in the US have it? Not sure.

    Good comment! In answer to your question, I don’t think so, because White is the default, and essentially “raceless” in the US. The issue of claiming “Whiteness” is that it doesn’t mean anything, outside of the concept of White supremacy. And I think some Black people, even if they don’t articulate it in the way folks want to hear, are trying to get that point across. White culture in the US is defined by region, religion, overlaps with “American” culture, divides based on how “ethnic” said White person is–it seems like some mixed people are resentful that the White doesn’t really mean much (similar to how some Whites lament “not having a culture”). I think it would be a lot different if Black/White mixed people’s heritage was interpreted along ethnic lines (e.g., my kids will be Black/Jewish, Alee’s will be Black/Swedish, and the Jewish/Swedish part has it’s own customs/traditions), but more often than not, it can’t be, since so many ethnic groups assimilated into generic “Whiteness”.

    (I hope this makes some kind of sense!)

  13. I agree with Alee’s post and Jasmin.

    But I think the Multiracial Movement is better there, then not there. It has flaws. But as things naturally get more multiracial, you might not even need an organized movement, it will just happen and ppl will get used to it. An actual movement can just speed up, or in some cases hinder, the progress.

  14. Nkosazana,

    I understand what you’re trying to say. And you’re not spamming; your comment was completely on topic.

    Jasmin,

    I’ve heard about the movement on TV and print (magazines, newspapers). But same as you, I’ve never known any mixed person in real life who was really into it. But I wonder if online people are more free to say the things they truly feel; the things they wouldn’t say in real life. I do know some mixed people who I get the feeling don’t like being considered “regular black”, especially socially.

    “the most vocal members of the multiracial movement seem to think that a) no “regular Black” people ever interact with/love/befriend White people and b) they have the best chances of being accepted into the “White club” because of their appearance (now if only those pesky Blacks would stop trying to hold them down).”

    I have no idea why they think this… I mean, their black parent interacted with, was loved by, and befriended white people, right? But maybe their parent never got their official “White Club” membership card. :)

    “It’s not that phenotype isn’t important, it’s just that mannerisms, attitudes, and behaviors seem to be more important to Whites (IME).”

    I 100 percent agree. In my experience phenotype counts a little, but behavior is MUCH more important.

  15. Mira (I have lots to say here :)),

    “I think the main problem here is the fact they don’t seem to fight for the acceptance of mixed individuals, but for the “you’re not really black” acceptance.”

    Right.

    Ideally, I would like to see mixed people recognized for what they are. I think it would make a better place for my future children, myself, and my relationship. But what is really unnerving is that that doesn’t seem to be their aim (at least many of them). They just don’t want to be considered black because they believe black is less.

    “They all love their black family members, sure they do”

    I wonder about that part.

    I read a comment by one mixed girl who said she wasn’t in contact with her black family members and she wasn’t fond of them. She said it was because her father (black) left her and her mother when she was young. But from other comments, I got the feeling that she didn’t like them partly because she felt they were too… “black”. And she felt like a white person with dark skin. I think there are other mixed people who feel similarly, based on interactions I’ve had with some.

    “some of them did express the belief they are white, but with some African ancestry.”

    I’ve heard some of them claim to be white but mixed, and say it’s the same as when people say Barack Obama is black but mixed. And I don’t think it’s the same at all. Because… news flash: white people will not think you’re white if you’re mixed. Unless you appear completely white. If your appearance suggests African ancestry, you’re branded at the very most, “non-white”, if not just black. And that’s the ultimate divider: whites and others.

    “On the other hand, I must admit I did notice that mixed American people who identify as mixed (and not black) are sometimes criticized and accused of denying their black ancestry.”

    I’ve noticed that too, but I have no problem with people identifying as mixed. It’s just that, often times, mixed people who say “I’m not black, I’m mixed” are of the variety that is trying to escape their blackness. Unless they are very young. So some blacks assume a mixed person is like that, if they are very adamant about being mixed and not black. They also think “What’s so wrong with being black?”

    Another thing is: most mixed people (I’d say around 70 percent) have the life experience of being treated as “just black.” Even ones that are more ambiguous are treated as “basically black”; people know they are not “all” black, but the black part is what sticks in their mind. Paula Patton spoke about this, Barack Obama had this relevation… that’s why they stopped (or never started) calling themselves mixed or mentioning they have a white parent. So it makes little sense to say you’re mixed all the time, when people still consider you black.

    “Or that some blacks go as far as “claiming” mixed people who are phenotypically white (for example, Wentworth Miller). “

    I think blacks feel like mixed people are “one of us” because mixed people were historically considered black, no matter how they looked. Also, some just like to claim famous people. :)

    “But the thing is, if there is going to be “mixed” as a real group, there should be at least some sense of a collective identity and shared culture. Do mixed individuals in the US have it? Not sure.”

    There is essentially no type of unity. Especially when you get into the other types of mixes: hapas/eurasians, black/asian, non-black hispanic/black, etc. Even when you look only at mixed people of black/white ancestry — they all come from different backgrounds and don’t all feel the same way about being mixed. But one of the multiracial movement’s goals is to create a sense of unity.

  16. Jasmin,

    “The issue of claiming “Whiteness” is that it doesn’t mean anything, outside of the concept of White supremacy. And I think some Black people, even if they don’t articulate it in the way folks want to hear, are trying to get that point across.”

    Bingo.

    Some blacks get the sense that’s what some mixed people really want: white privilege.

    AJ,

    That’s another thing I wonder: how “multiracial” the United States will get. We’ll have to see, but I have doubts about the “brown” U.S. some people foresee in the future.

  17. Yeah, we might not ever see a brown U.S., even if whites are the minority. I’m afraid we’ll see more race/class segregation. So, even with 30% whites in 75 years, it will still look like Whitesville in all the good areas and cities. Orrrr, Hispanics, Black, Asians etc. assimilate into Middle Class America, even being the majority (brown people), and things work out and we become more liberal. Yayy.

  18. Hi Alee,

    I agree with this post. I feel that the tantamount goal of the multiracial movement is to be seen as anything but black, rather than fostering some sort of multiracial identity. You and some other posters have also alluded to the fact that this is due to the perception of blacks in the US, and so they resent being lumped with the lower status group, while at the same time sharing the heritage of the dominant group. I don’t agree with the one drop rule, and I believe that each person should embrace all parts of their heritage, but the current multiracial movement is more about minimizing your African ancestry and playing up the non-black part. I grew up in the Caribbean, and this has always been the case with people of visibly mixed ancestry. That is what I have noticed, and I don’t want my child absorbing that nonsense, because it is essentially racist. You can embrace all parts of yourself without getting your panties in a bunch. The motives of some participants are not wholesome, and they are conveniently blind to the fact that most whites still adhere to the one drop rule, unless they want to except a high achieving person, like the president. At the same time, they take black people to task for doing the same. That differential treatment suggests that this is less about forging a new identity (at least for some), and is really about something else.

  19. Hi Robynne, good to see you here. :)

    “…the current multiracial movement is more about minimizing your African ancestry and playing up the non-black part. I grew up in the Caribbean, and this has always been the case with people of visibly mixed ancestry.”

    If you don’t mind me asking, what part of the Caribbean are you from? Jamaica?

    “they are conveniently blind to the fact that most whites still adhere to the one drop rule, unless they want to except a high achieving person, like the president. At the same time, they take black people to task for doing the same.”

    Yes!

    There is much talk among those in the Multiracial Movement that blacks are the main proponents of the de facto One Drop Rule. “Those annoying blacks… if only they’d stop calling mixed people black!” They view many black civil rights advocates like Jesse Jackson, Al Sharpton, etc. as their main adversaries.

    Well, what about all the whites that still say blacks voted for Barack Obama “because he’s black”? Are they not reinforcing the One Drop Rule by presuming that (which is not exactly true, BTW) and calling Obama black? Even with the famous, although they know a famous person is mixed, many whites still view them as Basically Black™. Thus you’ll see plenty of whites mention people like Halle Berry and Alicia Keys as “beautiful black women”. (Even though they will mention “but they are half white” as a side-note)

    And like Jasmin said, the only people that matter in terms of “white acceptance” of multiracial people is… you guessed it — white people.

  20. Robynne,

    I knew it. :)

    I’ve had experiences with Jamaicans and the complexion/hair hierarchy (not all necessarily negative, as far as one can say that). I might have to go down there myself to investigate what breeds the mentality.

  21. The same thing that breeds it here and in the rest of the diaspora, especially in South America.

  22. Robynne, so no countries are immune to white-washing, even ones that don’t have many whites at all? I thought as much, but it’s interesting to hear it from those who hail from other countries.

  23. I grew up in a country in West Africa. For the most part when you see a mixed race person they visibly stand out because they do look different from the other monoracial/ethnic groups around them. When I was growing up the common term for mixed was “half-caste” and “quarter-caste”.

    As for how mixed race is treated in my country, it really depends and is a little complex. We don’t have enough mixed people in terms of numbers for it to be some social and political issue. The attitudes towards a mixed race person will vary depending on their class/gender/social position. A child’s ethnic/national identity is based on their father (generally). So, if your parents are same race but different ethnic groups in the same country or different African countries then the child identity will be based on where the father is from.

    I don’t want to write a dissertation so I’ll keep it short. On the macro societal level, no, there isn’t any preferential treatment just because you are mixed. Preferential treatment is given to those in the upper/elite social strata. So you’re either born into or gain access to that group. On a social level, mixed women in general make out better than mixed men. That’s because in a 99.5% black country they stand out, have the “exotic” appeal factor and can marry up. With mixed men it can be a little bit more complex.

  24. Hi Alee and everyone else! Glad to see another blog out here! :)

    This is an interesting discussion and one I’ve had with my husband about raising our future (hopefully) children. I want them to acknowledge both of their heritages and I have no problem with them identifying as biracial or mixed race. At the same time, I said that I would not have my child become one of those folks who got huffy about being called black, and would not see being called black as a terrible insult even if he or she defined themselves as mixed race. Of course, we would make sure that our children took pride in their black heritage, which I think goes a long way toward making multiracial/biracial/mixed race people of African descent proud of — or at least okay with — being called or considered black.

    The irony of this multiracial movement, to me, is the fact that the crusaders say they want the right to self-define, but when a mixed race person self-defines as black, the multiracial “crusaders” get quite upset. Check out some of the articles written after Barack Obama checked off black only on the last Census.

    So that begs the question… is it really about self-definition for all of them, or it is really about getting as far from blackness as possible?

  25. Hi Nija and Bunny, glad to see you all here. :)

    Nija,

    “We don’t have enough mixed people in terms of numbers for it to be some social and political issue.”

    There aren’t that many in the U.S. either, but there’s a huge focus on them and how they do/should identify.

    I bet I could guess what country you are from too. Context clues. ;)

    Bunny,

    “I would not have my child become one of those folks who got huffy about being called black, and would not see being called black as a terrible insult even if he or she defined themselves as mixed race.”

    Ditto.

    “The irony of this multiracial movement, to me, is the fact that the crusaders say they want the right to self-define, but when a mixed race person self-defines as black, the multiracial “crusaders” get quite upset.”

    Exactly.

    Many of them saw Obama’s identifying as black as a setback to their movement. I know that they were very proud/excited when he garnered the presidency — they saw it as a milestone for black/white mixed people. So his checking “black” negated all of that; it was saying to the world that the black side really is the most important to mixed race people.

  26. Wow, this thread has really picked up. :-P

    I think the irony of some of the vitriol that comes out of the multiracial movement (as I’ve seen it online) is that they never consider that some of the people they’re attacking may be 1) mistaken for mixed, based on phenotypic stereotypes 2) related/married to a mixed person or 3) in a position to become parents to mixed kids. As Bunny77 alluded, how could I “hate” mixed people when my kids will be mixed? I found that came up pretty often on a blog Alee and I used to frequent: some folks couldn’t understand that disdain for the exclusive aspects of the multiracial movement /= disdain for multiracial people/interracial relationships.

  27. Jasmin,

    True. Some see disapproval of aspects of their movement as a dislike of mixed identity in general. Again, I have no issue with mixed people or people identifying as mixed. It’s the discriminatory parts that raise questions.

  28. But what is really unnerving is that that doesn’t seem to be their aim (at least many of them). They just don’t want to be considered black because they believe black is less.

    Unfortunately, this might be true. I don’t know how they feel about their “whiteness”, though (would they be upset if somebody thought they were white?), but this things don’t happen for many mixed individuals.

    “They all love their black family members, sure they do”

    I wonder about that part.

    Well, I’m talking about people who are generally ok and don’t go as far as hating their black parent!, but who do love their black family members, but prefer not to be seen as belonging to the same group as them.

    I read a comment by one mixed girl who said she wasn’t in contact with her black family members and she wasn’t fond of them. She said it was because her father (black) left her and her mother when she was young.

    This opens another issue: what happens if one parent is absent? Will the child adopt the remaining parent’s racial identity? Will the remaining parent be responsible enough to encourage the kid to learn about the absent parent’s race?

    As for “claiming” celebrities… It happens outside race issues. It’s something that happens in my culture, a lot. We’ve been all really hurt when Milla Jovovich (birth name Milica) denied her Serbian ancestry. Her father is Serbian (and a friend of mine knows her Serbian family and they were all really, really pissed). It was during the time Serbs were satanized in American media and having someone famous and successful would make us, people thought, look a bit better. Also, we (and when I say “we”, I mean on all ex-Yugoslavian ethnic groups, and probably all Balkan peoples) consider people of our ancestry “our own”, regardless of where they were born or where they live. So so us, there’s not such a thing as a Serbian-American person: he’s simply Serbian who is born and living in America. (Karl Malden, for example, or with Croats, John Malkovich).

    Ok, this seems off topic, but what I’m trying to say is that I do understand the feeling and the need to see these people as “one of our own”. But before claiming any celebrity, I think people need to ask themselves why is that so important. WHY is it so important for an actress to say she is half X or that she identifies with Y? Why is so disappointing when somebody doesn’t do that? Why is so exciting and beautiful when someone, who doesn’t have to say anything, talks about his ancestry (Wentworth Miller, for example). <- I'm not asking this because I don't understand; I'm asking this because it's what people need to ask themselves. The answer to these questions reveals a lot about the society and the power imbalance.

  29. It’s bit long, but it’s quite interesting if anyone is interested in how this “new multiracial identity” as he calls it could lead towards equality in America if you Americans handle it right. Equality of similarities as he said.

    Oh and Alee I just started my own little blog now, not as good as yours ofc ;)

  30. Mira,

    “This opens another issue: what happens if one parent is absent? Will the child adopt the remaining parent’s racial identity?”

    Well, there are a bunch of mixed race celebrity cases we can look at where one parent was absent. Barack Obama, Alicia Keys, Faith Evans, etc. I think what mattered most as far as what they identified with was how they were viewed and treated. And the majority were viewed and treated as black.

    *peeks at Wikipedia* I had no idea Milla Jovovich was half Serbian. Interesting.

  31. Nkosazana,

    Your comment got caught in my spam filter (probably because of the links). I updated it for you.

    Hmmm, I don’t know about the multiracial identity leading to equality. Ideally it would, but American racial complexes are such that it would probably lead to more social stratification.

    Cool, you have a blog now. I may be over to visit.

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